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differences in behavior across organizations. The ICC (2) values were as follows: 0.25

for help, 0.16 for achievement behavior, 0.46 for innovative behavior, and 0.30 for

compliant behavior.

Self-Monitoring. Self-monitoring is a form of social skill, related to the

recognition and regulation of emotion in a social context (Lennox & Wolfe, 1984). Focal

MBA participants were asked to rate their level of self-monitoring (on a 1-strongly

disagree to 7-strongly agree scale format) on a previously developed and validated scale

(Lennox & Wolf, 1984). A sample item reads “ I am often able to read people’s true

emotions correctly through their eyes.” I conducted a CFA to confirm the dimensionality

of the scale. One of the dimensions reflected social awareness, which Lennox & Wolfe

(1984) labeled sensitivity to expressive behavior of others (sample item: “In conversation,

I am sensitive to even the slightest change in the facial expression of the persons I’m

conversing with.”). Alpha reliability of the scale was equal to .82. Here I refer to this

dimension as cognitive self-monitoring.

The other dimension seemed to reflect a more active, behavioral component,

which can be labeled ability to modify self-presentation (Lennox & Wolfe, 1984; Sample

item: “In social situations, I have the ability to alter my behavior if I feel that something

else is called for”). The CFA analysis showed that one item had very low explanatory

power with respect to the overall latent dimension. Therefore, it was dropped from

further analysis. The alpha reliability of the scale was .80. In my thesis, I refer to that

dimension of self-monitoring as behavioral self-monitoring.

A 2-factor solution is consistent with the Lennox & Wolfe (1984) study, in which

they found an identical two-factor structure. The CFI and IFI indices for the two-


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