In: Scientific proceedings of the annual meeting of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatrists XII, New Orle- ans, 1995.
Spencer T, Biederman J, Wilens T, et al. An open, dose ranging study of tomoxetine in children with ADHD. In: Scientific Proceedings of the annual meeting of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry XV, Chicago, 1999.
Biederman J, Spencer T, Wilens T. Psychopharmacology in children and adolescents. In: Wiener J, ed. Textbook of child and adolescent psychiatry. Washington, DC: American Psychiat- ric Press, 1997:779–813.
Levin ED, Conners CK, Sparrow E, et al. Nicotine effects on adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Psychophar- macology 1996;123:55–63.
Wilens TE, Biederman J, Spencer TJ, et al. A pilot controlled clinical trial of ABT-418, a cholinergic agonist, in the treatment of adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Am J Psychiatry 1999;156:1931–1937.
Elia J, Borcherding BG, Potter WZ, et al. Stimulant drug treat- ment of hyperactivity: biochemical correlates. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1990;48:57–66.
Solanto M. Neuropsychopharmacological mechanisms of stim- ulant drug action in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a review and integration. Behav Brain Res 1998;94:127–152.
Zametkin AJ, Rapoport JL. Noradrenergic hypothesis of atten- tion deficit disorder with hyperactivity: a critical review. In: Meltzer HY, ed. Psychopharmacology: the third generation of progress. New York: Raven, 1987:837–842.
Zametkin AJ, Rapoport JL.Neurobiology of attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity: where have we come in 50 years? J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1987;26:676–686.
Pliszka S, McCracken J, Maas J. Catecholamines in attention- deficity hyperactivity disorder: current perspectives. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1996;35:264–272.
ShaywitzSE, Cohen DJ, ShaywitzBA. The biochemical basis of minimal brain dysfunction. J Pediatr 1978;92:179–187.
Schneider JS, Roeltgen DP. Delayed matching-to-sample, ob- ject retrieval, and discrimination reversal deficits in chronic low dose MPTP-treated monkeys. Brain Res 1993;615:351–354.
Schneider JS, Kovelowski CJD. Chronic exposure to low doses of MPTP. I. Cognitive deficits in motor asymptomatic mon- keys. Brain Res 1990;519:122–128.
Schneider JS, Sun ZQ, Roeltgen DP. Effects of dopamine ago- nists on delayed response performance in chronic low-dose MPTP-treated monkeys. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1994;48: 235–240.
Roeltgen DP, Schneider JS. Task persistence and learning ability in normal and chronic low dose MPTP-treated monkeys. Behav Brain Res 1994;60:115–124.
Russell V, de Villiers A, Sagvolden T, et al. Altered dopami- nergic function in the prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens and caudate-putamen of an animal model of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: the spontaneously hypertensive rat. Brain Res 1995;676:343–351.
Russell VA. The nucleus accumbens motor-limbic interface of the spontaneously hypertensive rat as studied in vitro by the superfusion slice technique. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2000;24: 133–136.
de Villiers AS, Russell VA, Sagvolden T, et al. Alpha 2-adreno- ceptor mediated inhibition of [3H]dopamine release from nu- cleus accumbens slices and monoamine levels in a rat model for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Neurochem Res 1995; 20:427–433.
Papa M, Berger DF, Sagvolden T, et al. A quantitative cyto- chrome oxidase mapping study, cross-regional and neurobehav- ioural correlations in the anterior forebrain of an animal model
Chapter 43: Pathophysiology of ADHD
of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Behav Brain Res 1998; 94:197–211.
King JA, Barkley RA, Delville Y, et al. Early androgen treatment decreases cognitive function and catecholamine innervation in an animal model of ADHD. Behav Brain Res 2000;107:35–43.
Carey MP, Diewald LM, Esposito FJ, et al. Differential distribu- tion, affinity and plasticity of dopamine D-1 and D-2 receptors in the target sites of the mesolimbic system in an animal model of ADHD. Behav Brain Res 1998;94:173–185.
Tatsumi M, Groshan K, Bakely R, et al. Pharmacological profile of antidepressants and related compounds at human mono- amine transporters. Eur J Pharmacol 1997;340:249–258.
Gainetdinov RR, Wetsel WC, Jones SR, et al. Role of serotonin in the paradoxical calming effect of psychostimulants on hyper- activity. Science 1999;283:397–402.
Milberger S, Biederman J, Faraone S, et al. Further evidence of an association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and cigarette smoking: findings from a high-risk sample of sib- lings. Am J Addict 1997;6:205–217.
Milberger S, Biederman J, Faraone SV, et al. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is associated with early initiation of ciga- rette smoking in children and adolescents. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1997;36:37–44.
Riggs PD, Mikulich SK, Whitmore EA, et al. Relationship of ADHD, depression, and non-tobacco substance use disorders to nicotine dependence in substance-dependent delinquents. Drug Alcohol Depend 1999;54:195–205.
Milberger S, Biederman J, Faraone S, et al. Is maternal smoking during pregnancy a risk factor for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children? Am J Psychiatry 1996;153:1138–1142.
Johns JM, Louis TM, Becker RF, et al. Behavioral effects of prenatal exposure to nicotine in guinea pigs. Neurobehav Toxicol Teratol 1982;4:365–369.
Fung YK, Lau YS. Effects of prenatal nicotine exposure on rat striatal dopaminergic and nicotinic systems. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1989;33:1–6.
Westfall TC, Grant H, Perry H. Release of dopamine and 5- hydroxytryptamine from rat striatal slices following activation of nicotinic cholinergic receptors. Gen Pharmacol 1983;14: 321–325.
Mereu G, Yoon K, Gessa G, et al. Preferential stimulation of ventral tegmental area dopaminergic neurons by nicotine. Eur J Pharmacol 1987;141:395-399.
Satterfield JH, Dawson ME. Electrodermal correlates of hyper- activity in children. Psychophysiology 1971;8:191–197.
Mattes JA. The role of frontal lobe dysfunction in childhood hyperkinesis. Comp Psychiatry 1980;21:358–369.
Weiss JL, Seidman LJ. The clinical use of psychological and neuropsychological tests. In: Nicholi A, ed. The new Harvard guide to psychiatry. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1988:46–69.
Barkley RA, Grodzinsky G, DuPaul GJ. Frontal lobe functions in attention deficit disorder with and without hyperactivity: a review and research report. J Abnorm Child Psychol 1992;20: 163–188.
Seidman LJ, Biederman J, Faraone SV, et al. Effects of family history and comorbidity on the neuropsychological performance of children with ADHD: preliminary findings. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1995;34:1015–1024.
Seidman LJ, Biederman J, Faraone SV, et al. Toward defining a neuropsychology of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder: performance of children and adolescents from a large clinically referred sample. J Consult Clin Psychol 1997;65:150–160.
Seidman LJ, Biederman J, Weber W, et al. Neuropsychological function in adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Biol Psychiatry 1998;44:260–268.