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Pathophysiology of Cardiac Performance

decreased contractility and decreased stroke volume ---> increased HR (via activation of b adrenoceptors)

4. Heart Rate

-inotropic drugs (cardiac glycosides)

decreased myocardial contractility ---> decreased CO

3. Contractility

- arteriolar vasodilators -decreased angiotensin II (ACE inhibitors)

increased sympathetic stimulation & activation of renin-angiotensin system ---> vascular resistance ---> increased BP

2. Afterload (resistance against which the heart must pump)

-salt restriction -diuretic therapy -venodilator drugs

increased blood volume and increased venous tone--->atrial filling pressure

1. Preload (work or stress the heart faces at the end of diastole)

Therapeutic Strategy

Mechanism

Factor

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