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PLEA2006 - The 23rd Conference on Passive and Low Energy Architecture, Geneva, Switzerland, 6-8 September 2006

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exterior temp comfort - 1st floor comfort - 2nd floor comfort – 3´d floor relative

26 yes (2) yes (2) yes (2)

29 yes (2) yes (1) yes (1)

32 yes (2) yes (2) yes (1)

35 yes (1) yes (1) yes (1)

31 yes (1) yes (1) yes (1)

28 yes (2) yes (2) yes (1)

humidity

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internal temperatures double facade

exterior temp

comfort response - according to Givonni´s

bioclimatic chart [2]

4.1 Stratification air pattern

There is a difference between 1st and 3´d floor of 3°C which remained stable during the monitoring period. The internal air speed was about 0.10 m/s due basically to convective forces.

4.2 Diminution of maximum external temperatures.

The difference between external temperature and 3st floor temperature increases significantly during mid day. A maximum reduction of 6 °C was obtained. In the other hand, at the end of the afternoon, internal air temperatures at the 3 ´d floor are very close to the external temperatures ( 29 °C)

Table 1: Preliminary comfort responses related to theoretical bioclimatic requirements.

5. CONCLUSIONS.

Preliminary results show that comfort could be achieved as a dynamic response from many cooling techniques integrated to the architecture. Table 1 shows test results.

temp oC

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interior temp double enveloppe

interior temp internal w all

(1) with minimum continuous ventilation flow : 0.10-0.50 m/sec [3]

(2). without ventilation

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Figure 5: Temperature measurements west façade.

4.3 The effect of the double façade.

Into the internal service corridor the temperature pattern repeats the atria pattern in comparison with the external temperature profile. This means a maximum difference at midday and minimum during the morning and at the end of the day. Stack effect is highly improved with air speeds between 01.m/seg and 0.30 m/s. Inside the shop commercial areas, the temperatures are lower an more stable than those observed at the double façade and atria plazas. See monitoring results at Fig 5 above. Figure 6 shows the construction process.

Slab Openings coupled to wind roof turbines

Figure 6: Internal view of double west façade.

The building response at this construction stage is according to the technical report held during the design process.

The 1st and 2nd floors have a good performance according to bioclimatic requirements.

In the case of the 3´d floor, if the relative humidity rises up from 75%, especially in rainy days, ventilation air flow is essential to create a reasonable comfort level. To facilitate this, there are under construction 10 underground pipes units (10000 CFM each one), which are able to release the air at 26 °C ( measured temperature of underground concrete exchangers).

The roof plays the main role to guarantee a good performance base on the following features:

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The open exhaust area of the ventilate sky lights actuating as wind turbines according to the figure No 6 represents minimum 10% of the floor area. 14 units were installed on the top. Exhaust areas are designed to promote maximum heat release and temperature differences. ( see figures 7 and 8) The total height of the atria is two times the effective user height ( 2.50 mts ) for the 1st and 2 nd floor, and three times for the 3 ´d floor (see figure 9 ). 100% of the internal space is protected against solar direct radiation, during peak hours. The ventilated skylight allows diffused lighting and avoids UV and IR portion, by placing opal polycarbonate sheets on the top of each tower. The double ventilated façade is essential to compensate the effect of the mass inertia of the concrete structure and brick massive walls.

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