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11,500 years ago the glaciers retreated from America’s midsection (Newsweek 4/26/1999 p. 57). Glaciers strongly influenced the topography of the Warm Lake basin. An Aug. 26, 2001 Idaho Statesman article about Yellowstone Park, reported there were 3,000-foot- thick glaciers in that area during the ice age. How deep were they in the Warm Lake area? The first humans set foot on the North American continent at the end of the ice age.

During the PaloIndian Period 12,000-8,000 years ago much of Idaho was covered with pine forests and marshes. People used spears to hunt mammoth, mastodon, horse, camel, large bison, and giant ground sloth (Idaho State Historical Museum exhibit). Were these critters in the Warm Lake area? Very likely

10,600 years ago was date of Buhl Idaho woman. Newsweek 4/26/1999 p.54

10,000 years ago is date of Clovis point found at Cascade ID.

6,900 years ago a mountain volcanic explosion created Crater Lake, ash deposits covered the downwind area. Boise p.11

During the Early Archaic Period in Idaho 8,000-5,000 years ago, the climate was warmer and dryer. Bison, antelope, and elk were on the plains. Salmon and fish were in the streams. Big horn sheep and deer were in the mountains. (ID State Historic Museum Exhibit)

South Fork salmon, steelhead, and resident fisheries have been an important food resource and religious symbol for Native Americans Indian Tribes for thousands of years. From USFS Thunderbolt Wildfire Recover DEIS.

1700’s Area tribes began obtaining horses. Idaho Statesman Discover Treasure Valley 2002-2003

Early 1800’s Idaho penetrated by fur traders.

1805-1806 Lewis & Clark crossed what is now northern Idaho during 1803-1806 expedition.

1815 April 10-11,Tambora volcano exploded in Indonesia. In the US it was called the year without summer due to the ash partially blocking out the sun. It snowed in the US in June, July, and August. Thirty cubic miles of magma were expelled in ash clouds and pyroclastic flows. Britannica on-line

1818 Francois Payette first set eyes on the Payette River, which he immediately named for himself. He was a member of the first “Snake River Expedition” under the leadership


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