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reference is Federal Writers’ Project, W.P.A., Idaho: a Guide in Word and Picture (Caldwell, Idaho 1937), p. 58: see also Federal Writers’ Project, W.P.A., The Idaho Encyclopedia (Caldwell, Idaho, 1938), p. 421.

March 1864 – June 1866 Caleb Lyon was governor of Idaho Territory. He left Lewiston on Dec. 29, 1864. C. Dewitt Smith was Territory Secretary when Lyon left, became acting governor, then governor at a later date.

1864, Dec. 24 effective date the Capital was moved from Lewiston to Boise. Montana was made a Territory. Compton’s Encyclopedia

Around 1863 when miners started working in the Warrens and Thunder Mountain area farmers-miners started settling on the South Fork of the Salmon River (prior to 1878). They raised garden crops, hay, horses, and cattle for the miners. The deer and bighorn sheep population had probably been diminished and there were few elk so meat was in demand along with vegetables. Meyer

1868 Wyoming was made a state and this finalized Idaho’s shape. Idaho For The Curious by Cort Conley 1982 p.X.

1869, May 10 the opening of the transcontinental rail line made travel out west easier. Compton’s Encyclopedia

1870 census, the area was in Idaho Territory, Idaho County, South Fork Precinct with 27 counted, all were male prospectors except a male storekeeper and a blacksmith.

1877 Nez Perce War. In 1877 Nez Perce chief Joseph was ordered to move his band from the Wallowa Valley to the Lapwai Reservation. They resisted and hostilities erupted between the Indians and the settlers along the Salmon River. Wm. Osborn was killed in the war. The running battle between the Cavalry, led by General O. O. Howard, and the Nez Perce lasted three months and covered 1700 miles. It ended in Montana, just 30 miles shy of sanctuary in Canada. From Beamers Hell Canyon History Sheet

1878 17 June, Indians raided ranches in Indian Valley and ran off with about 60 head of horses. Four ranchers were in pursuit when they were ambushed at the Payette Falls (Cascade). Killed were Wm. Monday, Jake (John) Grosclose, and Tom Healy with “Three-Fingers” Smith badly wounded (Sheepeater Indian Campaign, P12). History sign says ambush was on Aug. 20, 1878. Another article in book Sheepeater Indian Campaign says this occurred on Aug. 17, 1878 P27. Their grave is located north of Cascade, west of SH55, on Vista Point Blvd. 0.7 mile and on the right side of the gravel road. A three- foot high rock has “Grave” painted on it and the bronze marker is some 200 feet north of the road. This site is just north of the Cascade Dam.

1878 Aug. 20, Dan Crooks and Boone Helm (Bob Wilhelm on Historic Marker) were killed at Round Valley, presumably by Indians (Sheepeater Indian Campaign book p. 12). They were working a mine for a miner named Pearsol on a creek that now bears his name


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