Richards WJ,Bohnsack JA.1990.The Caribbean Sea:A large marine ecosystem in crisis. Pages 44–53 in Sherman K, Alexander LM, Gold BD, eds. Large Marine Ecosystems: Patterns, Processes, and Yields. Washington (DC): American Association for the Advancement of Science. Rivera-Monroy VH, Twilley RR. 1996. The relative role of denitrification and immobilization in the fate of inorganic nitrogen in mangrove sedi- ments. Limnology and Oceanography 41: 284–296. Rivera-Monroy VH, Twilley R, Medina E, Moser EB, Botero L, Francisco AM, Bullard E. 2004. Spatial variability of soil nutrients in disturbed riverine mangrove forests at different stages of regeneration in the San Juan River estuary, Venezuela. Estuaries 27: 44–57. Salisbury JE, Campbell JW, Meeker LD,Vörösmarty C. 2001. Ocean color and river data reveal fluvial influence in coastal waters. Eos, Transactions of the American Geophysical Union 82: 221–224. Skirving W, Guinott J. 2001. The sea surface temperature story on the Great Barrier Reef during the coral bleaching event of 1998. Page 350 in Wolanski E, ed. Oceanographic Processes of Coral Reefs: Physical and Biological Links in the Great Barrier Reef. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. Smith TJ III, Robblee MB, Wanless HR, Doyle TW. 1994. Mangroves, hurricanes, and lightning strikes. BioScience 44: 256–262. Solow AR. 1995. Estimating biodiversity: Calculating unseen richness. Oceanus 38 (2): 9–10. Spalding M, Blasco F, Field C. 1997.World Mangrove Atlas. Okinawa (Japan): International Society for Mangrove Ecosystems. Stenseth NC, Mysterud A, Ottersen C, Hurrell JW, Chan KS, Lima M. 2002. Ecological effects of climate fluctuations. Science 297: 1292–1296.
856 BioScience • September 2004 / Vol. 54 No. 9
Szmant AM. 2002. Nutrient enrichment on coral reefs: Is it a major cause of coral reef decline? Estuaries 25: 743–766. Thom BG. 1982. Mangrove ecology: A geomorphological perspective. Pages 3–17 in Clough BF, ed. Mangrove Ecosystems in Australia: Structure, Function, and Management. Canberra: Australian National University Press. Trenberth KE, Hoar TJ. 1997. El Niño and climate change. Geophysical Research Letters 24: 3057–3060. Twilley RR. 1995. Properties of mangrove ecosystems and their relation to the energy signature of coastal environments. Pages 43–62 in Hall CAS, ed. Maximum Power. Boulder: University Press of Colorado. Twilley RR, Rivera-Monroy VH, Chen R, Botero L. 1998. Adapting an ecological mangrove model to simulate trajectories in restoration ecology. Marine Pollution Bulletin 37: 404–419. Twilley R, Barron EJ, Gholtz HL, Harwell MA, Miller RL, Reed DJ, Roser JB, Siemann EH, Wetzel RG, Zimmerman RJ. 2001. Confronting Climate Change in the Gulf Coast Region. Cambridge (MA): Union of Concerned Scientists. Villamizar E. 2000. Estructura de una comunidad arrecifal en Falcon, Venezuela, antes y despues de una mortalidad masiva. Revista de Biolo- gia Tropical 47: 19–30. Vitousek PM, Mooney HA, Lubchenco J, Melillo JM. 1997. Human domi- nation of Earth’s ecosystems. Science 277: 494–499. Wilkinson C. 2000. Status of Coral Reefs of the World: 2000. Townsville (Australia): Australian Institute of Marine Science. [WTTC] World Travel and Tourism Council. 2003. Caribbean Travel and Tourism: A World of Opportunity. London: WTTC.