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viii

EXPLANATORY NOTES

The following symbols have been used throughout this Survey:

..=not available or not pertinent

=nil or negligible

*=estimate by the secretariat of the Economic Commission for Europe

=break in series

In referring to a combination of years, the use of an oblique stroke (e.g. 1998/99) signifies a 12-month period (say, from 1 July 1998 to 30 June 1999).  The use of a hyphen (e.g. 1998-2000) normally signifies either an average of, or a total for, the full period of calendar years covered (including the end-years indicated).

Unless the contrary is stated, the standard unit of weight used throughout is the metric ton.  The definition of “billion” used throughout is a thousand million.  The definition of “trillion” used throughout is a thousand billion.  Minor discrepancies in totals and percentages are due to rounding.

References to dollars ($) are to United States dollars unless otherwise specified.

The membership of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) consists of all the states of western Europe, eastern Europe and the territory of the former Soviet Union, North America and Israel.

The term transition economies, as used in the text and tables of this publication, refers to the formerly centrally planned economies of the ECE regions.  Eastern Europe refers to the economies of Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Yugoslavia.  The Baltic states refers to Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania and the CIS countries refers to Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Republic of Moldova, Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan.

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