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This report was prepared by Avi Perry, Bill Emerson National Hunger Fellow; Stephanie Ettinger de Cuba, MPH, C-SNAP Program Manager; John Cook, PhD, Co-Principal Investigator, Boston Medical Center, Boston, MA; and Deborah A. Frank, MD, C-SNAP Principal Investigator at Boston Medical Center in Boston, MA, in collaboration with C-SNAP Principal Investigators:

  • Alan Meyers, MD, MPH, Co-Principal Investigator, Boston Medical Center, Boston, MA;

  • Diana Cutts, MD, Co-Principal Investigator, Hennepin County Medical Center, Minneapolis, MN;

  • Mariana Chilton, PhD, MPH, Co-Principal Investigator, St. Christopher’s Hospital for Children, Philadelphia, PA

  • Maureen Black, PhD, Co-Principal Investigator, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD;

  • Patrick Casey, MD, Co-Principal Investigator, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR

Data management, analysis, and interpretation were completed by the C-SNAP data coordinating team at the Boston University School of Public Health Data Coordinating Center:

  • Danielle Appugliese, MPH

  • Timothy Heeren, PhD

  • Zhaoyan Yang, MS

This report was made possible by the Annie E. Casey Foundation.

C-SNAP operations and analyses have been supported by: Abell Foundation, Annie E. Casey Foundation, Anonymous Donor, Anthony Spinazzola Foundation, Candle Foundation, Claneil Foundation, Daniel Pitino Foundation, EOS Foundation, Gold Foundation, Gryphon Fund, Hartford Foundation for Public Giving, Jennifer Kaminsky, MAZON: A Jewish Response to Hunger, Minneapolis Foundation, New Hampshire Charitable Foundation, Project Bread: The Walk for Hunger, Sandpiper Philanthropic Foundation, Schaffer Foundation, Susan P. Davies and Richard W. Talkov, Susan Schiro and Peter Manus, Thomas Wilson Sanitarium for Children of Baltimore City, United States Department of Agriculture, Vitamin Litigation Funding, with major funding from the W.K. Kellogg Foundation.

Design: Communication via Design, Ltd. Boston, MA

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xiv R. Haskins, M. Greenberg, and S. Fremstad. ‘Federal Policy for Immigrant Children: Room for Common Ground?’ The Future of Children 2004; 14 (2). xv R. Capps, M. Fix, J. Ost, J. Reardon-Anderson, and J. Passel. ‘The Health and Well-being of Young Children of Immigrants,’ Urban Institute, 2004. xvi M. Urrutia. ‘Immigrant Access to Food stamps and Nutrition Services: A Latino Perspective,’ National Council of La Raza, March 2004. xvii J.T. Cook, M. Black, P. Casey, D.A. Frank, C. Berkowitz, D. Cutts, A. Meyers, and N. Zaldivar. ‘Food Insecurity is Associated with Adverse Health Outcomes among Human Infants and Toddlers,’ Journal of Nutrition 2004; 134: 1432-38; J.T. Cook, D.A. Frank, S.M. Levenson, N. Neault, T.C. Heeren, M. Black, C. Berkowitz, P.H. Casey, A.F. Meyers, D.B. Cutts, and M. Chilton. ‘Child Food Insecurity Increases Risks Posed by Household Food Insecurity to Young Children’s Health,’ Journal of Nutrition 2006; 136: 1073-76. xviii D.A. Frank, S. Ettinger de Cuba, and N. Neault, et al. ‘Protecting the Health and Nutrition of Young Children of Color: The Impact of Nutrition Assistance and Income Support Programs. Research Findings from the Children’s Sentinal Nutrition Assessment Program (C-SNAP),’ Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies, Health Policy Institute, May 2006. xix D. Rose, J.P. Habicht, and B. Devaney. ‘Household Participation in the Food Stamp and WIC Programs Increases the Nutrient Intakes of Preschool Children,’ Journal of Nutrition 1998; 128(3): 548-55; R. Perez- Escamilla, A.M. Ferris, L. Drake, L. Haldeman, J. Peranick, M. Campbell, Y.K. Peng, G. Burke, and B. Bernstein. ‘Food stamps are Associated with Food Security and Dietary Intake of Inner-City Preschoolers in Hartford, Connecticut,’ Journal of Nutrition 2000; 130(11): 2711-11. xx D.F. Jyoti, E.A. Frongillo, and S.J. Jones. ‘Food Insecurity Affects School Children’s Academic Performance, Weight Gain, and Social Skills,’ Journal of Nutrition 2005; 135 (12): 2831-9; E.A. Frongillo, D.F. Jyoti, and S.J. Jones. ‘Food Stamp Program Participation is Associated with Better Academic Learning among School Children,’ Journal of Nutrition 2006; 136(4): 1077-80. xxi B.J. Lee, L. Mackey-Bilaver, and M. Chin. ‘Effects of WIC and Food Stamp Program Participation on Child Outcomes.’ Economic Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, December 2006. xxii J.T. Cook, et al. ‘Food Insecurity is Associated with Adverse Health Outcomes among Human Infants and Toddlers,’ 2004. xxiii Food Research and Action Center. ‘Food Stamp Access in Urban America: A City-by- City Snapshot,’ October 2006; K. Hanson and E. Golan. ‘Effects of Changes in Food Stamp Expenditures Across the U.S. Economy,’ Food Assistance and Nutrition Research Report, Economic Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, August 2002. xxiv Food Research and Action Center. ‘Food Stamp Access in Urban America: A City-by- City Snapshot,’ October 2006.

Children’s Sentinel Nutrition Assessment Program 725 Massachusetts Ave., Mezzanine SW, Boston, Massachusetts 02118 phone: 617.414.5251 fax: 617.414.7047 web: www.c-snap.org

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