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Example 1.5

The amount of money expended in fiscal year 1995 by the U.S. Department of Defense in various categories is shown in Table 1.6. Construct both a pie chart and a bar chart to describe the data. Compare the two forms of presentation.

Table 1.6

Category                                 Amount (in billions)

Military personnel                                   $70.8

Operation and maintenance                     90.0

Procurement                                             55.0

Research and development                     34.7

Military construction                                   6.8         

Total                                                     $258.2

Solution

Two variables are being measured: the category of expenditure (qualitative) and the amount of the expenditure (quantitative). The bar chart in Figure 1.6 displays the categories on the

©1998 Brooks/Cole Publishing/ITP

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