224

# S. G. Haberle

# Haeapugua

H-6

charcoal particles

Macaranga Pandanus antaresensis type

# Gramineae

Elaeocarpaceae Cunoniaceae Ilex Myrtaceae

Dacrydium Pyllocladus Castanopsis

# Podocarpus

# Nothofagus

ferns and lycopods polynological richness

herbs

C age (kilo years BP) forest

14

⊗0.2 ⊗0.9

⊗1.2

# Haeapugua

depth

(cm) 0

100

Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B (2007)

⊗2.9

200

H-5

⊗4.4 ⊗8.4

300

400

H-4

⊗11.3

⊗16.9

500

⊗20.7

600

⊗27.8

H-3

700

800

0.8

0.4

0 10 20 30 40 50 0

0 10

0 10 0 0 0 0 10 0

0 10 0

0 5 10 15 20 25 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

–1

cm grain

2

)

200

# E(T

percentage

Figure 3. Pollen diagram for Haeapugua, Tari Basin (Haberle 1998b). Pollen counts are expressed as percentages of the total pollen and spore sum, excluding pollen and spores of aquatic vascular plants. Palynological richness provides a comparative estimate of the expected number of taxa in each sample and is determined by rarefaction analysis (Birks & Line 1992). Detailed counting of carbonized particles follows the point counting method outlined by Clark (1982). Numerical zonation was performed with only major taxa whose pollen or spore values exceeded 5% at least once and employed optimal splitting by sum of squares analysis to partition the data into six zones for Haeapugua of which the latest four are represented here. All numerical analyses have been implemented within PSIMPOLL, a C program for plotting pollen data, developed by Bennett (1994).