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(n123) Id. at 107.

(n124) Id. at 106.

(n125) CAMPBELL, supra note 109, at 86

(n126) Nakase, supra note 122, at 109;

(n127) Id. at 110, 113.

(n128) Auditors are responsible for detecting illegal acts insofar as they materially affect the fairness of the financial statements. Illegal acts are considered to be any violations of the law. 1 AICPA PROFESSIONAL STANDARDS, U.S. Auditing Standards section 317.05 and 316.05 (Am. Inst. of Certified Pub. Accountants (CCH) 1990).

(n129) Nakese, supra note 122, at 113.

(n130) Id. at 114.

(n131) In the United States, it is commonplace for CPAs performing audit services to offer additional services such as tax and management consulting to their audit clients. However, an auditor is not allowed to function "as a promoter, underwriter or voting trustee, as a director or officer, or in any capacity equivalent to that of a member of management or of an employee." 2 AICPA PROFESSIONAL STANDARDS, Code of Professional Conduct ET section 101.02 101- 181 (Am. Inst. of Certified Pub. Accountants (CCH) 1990). For criticism of the American practice of allowing auditors to offer non-audit services to audit clients, see supra notes 72-91 and accompanying text.

(n132) CAMPBELL, supra note 109, at 51.

(n133) W. Morley Lemon, Auditing Standards in Canada, in COMPARATIVE INTERNATIONAL AUDITING STANDARDS 124 (Belverd E. Needles Jr. ed. 1985) [hereinafter Lemon].

(n134) CAMPBELL, supra note 109, at 9.

(n135) See AM. INST. OF CERTIFIED PUB. ACCOUNTANTS, THE ACCOUNTING PROFESSION IN CANADA 9 (2d ed. 1990) (discussing CANADIAN INSTITUTE OF CHARTERED ACCOUNTANTS, CICA HANDBOOK section 5000).

(n136) Lemon, supra note 133, at 125.

(n137) Id. at 127-28.

(n138) Id. at 128.

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