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PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF COUNSELING STUDENTS AT A - page 108 / 135

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crucial advantage of a multifaceted approach to the five domains is that there are

meaningful differences within each domain (Costa & McCrae, 1992).

A significant limitation of this study was the small sample size. This study

utilized a questionnaire that was mailed to graduates of the Midwest Pastoral Counseling

Program. Although the return rate was 63.8 % (n = 74), it must be considered that there

were many individuals who did not respond to the questionnaire. A more thorough

follow-up of graduates from whom questionnaires were returned by the postal service

(7.8%) and who did not respond to the questionnaire may have provided more accurate

data. Also, a portion of this study analyzed the correlation that personality has with

licensure acquisition. A high percentage of the 68 respondents who had completed the

licensure track (94.1 %; n = 64) had received licensure, and therefore the findings may be

skewed to reflect mostly the attitudes and beliefs of individuals who went on to complete

licensure. The results may not represent those who did not complete licensure. A larger

sample size would provide greater confidence in the results found. Furthermore,

correlating the NEO PI-R domain scales and MMPI-2 clinical and validity scales with the

outcome variables requires running many tests. As a result, a Bonferroni adjustment (p =

.05/18 (.002) was required in order to reduce the likelihood of a Type I error.

Noteworthy trends in the data were found, but caution must be observed in interpreting

the findings.

An area of future research concerns the finding that even after Bonferroni

adjustments there is a statistically significant negative correlation (p = .001) between

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