scale 0 (Si) of the MMPI-2 and counseling work gratification. This finding appears to be
particularly significant as the two questions “Would you say that you are enjoying your
work?” and “Would you say that your work is gratifying?” are significantly correlated to
one another but scale 0 (Si) of the MMPI-2 did not even show a trend for correlation with
work enjoyment. It appears that these questions regarding counseling work enjoyment
and counseling work gratification measure something different from one another and a
study of how social introversion (as measured by the MMPI-2) interfaces with
gratification in the counseling profession could have significant relevance to counselor
Further research should also include a comparison of the data with a greater
number of non-clinical counseling graduates. There is a significantly larger number of
students at Ashland Theological Seminary who are pursuing the clinical counseling
degree in comparison to the non-clinical degree and in this study the greatest majority of
the respondents to the questionnaire (91.9 %) were graduates of the clinical degree track.
The non-clinical counseling graduates who do not seek licensure may have a different
personality profile from those who are clinical counseling graduates; these differences
may affect success and satisfaction in the profession.
The subjects of this study were students of an evangelical seminary. Further
study should consist of counseling graduates of a secular institution for comparison.
Various studies in the literature have examined the impact of religious background upon
personality (MacDonald & Holland, 2003; Naus, 1973; Patrick, 1991). For example,