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PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF COUNSELING STUDENTS AT A - page 14 / 135

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CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

Introduction

Counseling is a complex process that consists of many factors, the outcome of

which is difficult to predict (Luborsky et al., 1980). Not all counseling outcomes are

positive and failure may be associated with either the client or the therapist (Mohr, 1995).

Counselor education programs have been increasingly concerned with accountability,

accreditation, budgetary constraints and the value of having a multidimensional process

to the selection of students (Childers & Rye, 1987). Furthermore, counselor educators

are aware of the dynamics and stress that therapists experience; therefore, the effort

expended to select students for training that will succeed and be satisfied with their work

is an important concern (Bradey & Post, 1991). Deutsch (1985) surveyed

psychotherapists and found that one-half had experienced relationship difficulties or

depression. However, many do not seek treatment for fear that doing so would be

perceived as a sign of failure and possibly professional sanctions would also result.

Therefore, the selection of students to populate counselor education programs has serious

ramifications for therapy outcome, but also the work satisfaction and perceived

effectiveness of the counselor should be of major concern.

The selection of qualified students for the counseling profession has been

attempted by a variety of methods, including the Graduate Record Exam (Goldberg,

1977; Ingram & Zurawski, 1981), an interview (Perusse, Goodnough, & Noel, 2001), and

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