CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE
Counseling is a complex process that consists of many factors, the outcome of
which is difficult to predict (Luborsky et al., 1980). Not all counseling outcomes are
positive and failure may be associated with either the client or the therapist (Mohr, 1995).
Counselor education programs have been increasingly concerned with accountability,
accreditation, budgetary constraints and the value of having a multidimensional process
to the selection of students (Childers & Rye, 1987). Furthermore, counselor educators
are aware of the dynamics and stress that therapists experience; therefore, the effort
expended to select students for training that will succeed and be satisfied with their work
is an important concern (Bradey & Post, 1991). Deutsch (1985) surveyed
psychotherapists and found that one-half had experienced relationship difficulties or
depression. However, many do not seek treatment for fear that doing so would be
perceived as a sign of failure and possibly professional sanctions would also result.
Therefore, the selection of students to populate counselor education programs has serious
ramifications for therapy outcome, but also the work satisfaction and perceived
effectiveness of the counselor should be of major concern.
The selection of qualified students for the counseling profession has been
attempted by a variety of methods, including the Graduate Record Exam (Goldberg,
1977; Ingram & Zurawski, 1981), an interview (Perusse, Goodnough, & Noel, 2001), and