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PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF COUNSELING STUDENTS AT A - page 16 / 135

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Supervision, 1993; Bradey & Post, 1991; Frame & Stevens-Smith, 1995). In order to do

so, training programs have based admission of their applicants on criteria such as the

Graduate Record Exam (GRE), undergraduate grade point average, prior work

experience, letters of recommendation, an interview, interpersonal characteristics, and

personality dimensions (Markert & Monke, 1990; Stickle & Schnacke, 1984).

The Graduate Record Exam

For many years, scores from the Graduate Record Exam (GRE) have been a

significant consideration in the selection of students for admission into graduate

programs (Goldberg, 1977; Ingram & Zurawski, 1981). However, this method has not

been without its shortcomings (Chernyshenko & Ones, 1999); moreover, its predictive

ability is questionable (Morrison & Morrison, 1995). While some studies lend support to

the value of the GRE to predict graduate school performance (Dollinger, 1989; Tryon &

Tryon, 1986), it has been noted that predictive validity for students of psychology and

counseling is inadequate (Goldberg & Alliger, 1992). Specifically, the GRE is deemed

inadequate for student placement as counseling success may require creative and

practical abilities and less analytic aptitude (Leverett-Main, 2004). Further, House and

Johnson (1993) found that the GRE is inadequate to predict degree completion uniformly

for students of psychology, noting that degree completion varied by area of study. The

GRE was a good predictor of degree completion of students in general/experimental

psychology but was a poor predictor of degree completion of students in professional

psychology fields.

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