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PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF COUNSELING STUDENTS AT A - page 22 / 135

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incompetence can have serious implications for clinical work, it was noted that for

students many of these interpersonal qualities are established prior to their training and

others can be modified through training. The personality characteristics of a therapist

may interfere with the ability to instill confidence or hope in clients and may disrupt the

therapy process.

Numerous other studies have also highlighted the urgency to link the achievement

of counseling effectiveness with the personality characteristics of the counselor. Bare

(1967) investigated the relationship of personality characteristics with client and

counselor ratings of counseling success. Certain counselor personality characteristics

such as high original thinking, high vigor, low ascendancy, low achievement needs, and

low order needs were related to a close therapeutic relationship, while certain

dissimilarity of counselor-client personality was more associated with ratings of success.

Brewer and Apostal (1976) found that the more effective counselors were more reserved,

apprehensive, less rule bound, and more empathic. Najavits and Strupp (1994) also

found that effective therapists were different on nonspecific variables, and showed more

positive behaviors and fewer negative behaviors, were more self-critical, and showed

more warmth and affirmation.

In a study of depressed patients, (Blatt, Sanislow, Zuroff, & Pilkonis, 1996) the

therapists were asked to rate their attitudes and expectations about the etiology of major

depression and components they considered essential to treatment on a 7-point scale. The

study concluded that therapists who were more effective were more psychological than

biological in their orientation. These therapists predominately used psychotherapy with

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