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PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF COUNSELING STUDENTS AT A - page 23 / 135

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depressed patients and rarely used biological medication. The interpersonal qualities of

the therapeutic relationship had significant bearing on an effective treatment outcome.

Lafferty, Beutler, and Crago (1989) found that effective therapists were less

directive, had differences in the value of comfort and excitement of life, and were less

concerned with being intellectual. Tinsley and Tinsley (1977) captured some of the

difficulty in addressing this by noting that a definition of counselor effectiveness has

been lacking and that effectiveness differs on a number of nonintellective qualities. They

also noted that there are different aspects to the counseling vocation in that it also

includes teaching, research, and administration. Johnson, Shertzer, Linden, and Stone

(1967) explored non-intellective characteristics of counselor candidates in their practicum

and found that males considered effective were affable, friendly, likeable, accepting,

capable, and satisfied. Females considered effective were outgoing, confident, efficient,

and assertive.

A concern for efficacy also prompted Jennings and Skovholt (1999) to conduct a

study of ten therapists that were nominated as master therapists by well-regarded

therapists in a major Midwestern city. Several personal characteristics were identified as

factors of those who are effective in their work. Their findings were organized into the

domains of cognitive, emotional, and relational. The master therapists in the cognitive

domain were voracious learners, had accumulated experiences as a resource for their

work, and valued cognitive complexity and the ambiguity of the human condition. The

master therapists in the emotional domain appeared to have emotional receptivity and

were self-aware, reflective, nondefensive, and open to feedback. Other aspects of the

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