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PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF COUNSELING STUDENTS AT A - page 25 / 135

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Personality Assessment

Significant research that has utilized personality assessments to study the personality

characteristics of counselors, students in counselor education programs, missionaries and

seminary students is found in the literature (Bakker, Van Der Zee, Lewig & Dollard,

2006; Cottle & Lewis, 1954; Phillips, 1970; Stone, 1990; White & Franzoni, 1990).

These studies demonstrate the value of personality assessment in filling various

occupational and professional roles, including counseling. The Minnesota Multiphasic

Personality Inventory-2 and its previous edition along with the Revised NEO Personality

Inventory have been used extensively for this purpose.

The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory

The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), first published in

1943 and later revised in 1989 (MMPI-2), has been extensively used for personality

assessment (Harrison, Kaufman, Hickman, & Kaufman, 1988; Lubin, Larsen, &

Matarazzo, 1984). Although developed to assist in psychiatric settings, it has been

researched for use with non-clinical subjects and personnel screening programs (Butcher,

2001). After many years of usage in a variety of settings, concerns were expressed that

the original MMPI lacked a standardization sample that was truly representative of the

United States population. Other concerns were voiced about archaic or obsolete language

and references, sexist language, inappropriate references to Christian religious beliefs,

and other seemingly irrelevant items in the inventory (Graham, 2006). The revision

effort of the MMPI resulted in the continuity of the original validity and clinical scales

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