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PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF COUNSELING STUDENTS AT A - page 26 / 135

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and a normative sample that was balanced in ethnicity (Butcher, 2005). This revision of

the MMPI (the MMPI-2, published in 1989) also resulted in the continuity and utilization

of the research base that had accumulated (Graham, 2006).

The MMPI-2 consists of 567 questions that require an objective answer in a

true/false format and has 10 empirical scales that make up the standard profile. The

clinical scales compare a person to the normal reference group. Originally developed as

a tool for routine diagnostic assessments, eight scales were developed to measure clinical

syndromes originally named hypochondriasis, depression, hysteria, psychopathic deviate,

paranoia, psychasthenia, schizophrenia, and hypomania. Later, two scales were added to

measure masculinity-femininity and social introversion (Graham, 2006).

Although the 10 clinical scales were originally designed to help diagnose

psychopathology of new patients, it became apparent that it would not achieve its stated

purpose (Graham, 2006). Therefore the names that were given to the 10 scales have been

replaced with numbers, and it is appropriate and common to refer to a scale number

rather than a scale name (Butcher, 2006). The original clinical scale names, scale

numbers, and brief descriptors are:

Hypochondriasis (Hs) 1: high scores indicate that a person has numerous

physical problems and may be generally unhappy;

Depression (D) 2: high scores indicate a depressed mood and that a person is

distressed and possibly moody;

Hysteria (Hy) 3: high scores indicate that a person is relying on neurotic defenses

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