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PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF COUNSELING STUDENTS AT A - page 29 / 135

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the L, K, Ma (5), and Si (0) scales. The counselors had lower L, Ma (5) and Si (0) scores,

but a higher K score.

In a follow-up study of this same series, Cottle, Lewis, and Penney (1954)

extracted 111 items from these instruments that characterized counselor responses and

combined them with 39 items that were adapted from the Counseling Psychologist scale

of the Strong Vocational Interest Blank for Men. When this scale was then administered

to 60 male teachers that had no graduate courses in counseling and 60 male graduate

students and counselors as a pilot study, the researchers concluded that answers to the

items of the experimental scale could differentiate the two groups. But as Heikkinen and

Wegner (1973) pointed out, the study by Cottle and Lewis (1954) examined the

characteristics of experienced counselors, not necessarily effective counselors.

Heikkinen and Wegner also concluded from their systematic review of MMPI research

that counselors had greater extroversion (low Si), possibly more defensiveness (high K),

more calm and efficiency (lower Ma), and were more honest (low L) than other

professional groups. It was suggested that other instruments than the MMPI might prove

more beneficial for predicting counselor effectiveness. Heikkinen and Wegner also noted

that there can be uncertainty regarding a definition of effectiveness, as effectively

predicting future grades may not be the same as effectively predicting a climate of growth

for a client.

Phillips (1970) studied the MMPI profiles of 149 ministers and psychologists that

were accepted into a marriage counseling program. The subjects were rated according to

their counseling ability into three groups: Upper, Middle, and Lower. Based upon the

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