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PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF COUNSELING STUDENTS AT A - page 33 / 135

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profession (Deutsch, 1985) and the belief that some have entered the profession to deal

with their own existential and neurotic anxieties (Bugental, 1964). Recognizing that

there had not been any research examining the mental health level of master’s level

counselors or counselor trainees, White and Franzoni (1990) compared the mental health

of 180 beginning graduate students of a counselor training program with the general

population. Differences on six of the seven clinical scales of the MMPI were found and

compared. Three of the ten scales were considered irrelevant to the focus of their study

(Mf, scale 5; Ma, scale 9; Si, scale 0), but on D (scale 2), Hy (scale 3), Pd (scale 4), Pa

(scale 6), Pt (scale 7), and Sc (scale 8) students in the counselor training program had

significantly higher levels of psychopathy. Hs (scale 1) did not show a significant

elevation. The researchers considered differences in scale elevation practically

significant when a population had more than 5% of its individuals with a T score above

70. In this study, five of the six scales met this level of significance. The scales were D

(scale 2; 6.7%), Hy (scale 3; 7.2%), Pd (scale 4; 12.8%), Pa (scale 6; 42.2 %) and Sc

(scale 8; 8.8%).

Other instruments used in the study to assess mental health included the Adult

Nowicki-Stricland Internal-External Control Scale (Nowicki & Duke, 1974), designed to

measure external locus of control, the Life Style Personality Inventory (Wheeler, Kern &

Curlette, 1982) which measures social interest, and the Coping Resources Inventory for

Stress (Matheny, Curlette, Aycock, Pugh & Taylor, 1987), an assessment that focuses on

a person’s resources for coping with stress. White and Franzoni (1990) concluded that

these elevations on the student’s MMPI scales did not necessarily indicate a lower mental

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