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health than the general population, but noted that when there was an increase in

psychopathy, as evidenced by the MMPI, the students in counselor education training

were characterized with more external locus of control, less social interest, and had less

resources for coping with stress. Implications for counselor education programs included

the importance of identifying students who had psychological problems, providing

services for them, and also visiting the issue of screening students for admission.

However, this study did not address how elevations on MMPI scale scores impact the

success of a student in a counselor education program.

The MMPI, Religious Affiliation, and Personality of Seminary Students and Clergy

Numerous studies have examined the possible relationship that religious

background and training may have with MMPI (and MMPI-2) scores. For example,

MacDonald and Holland (2003) studied the relationship between the MMPI-2 and

spirituality as measured by the Expressions of Spirituality Inventory (ESI; MacDonald,

2000) and a self-report of religious involvement of 239 undergraduate psychology

students. The students were not clergy or seminary students, but the relationship of

religious involvement to the clinical scales of the MMPI-2 collectively was found. In this

study, D (scale 2) and Pd (scale 4) of the MMPI-2 were lower for those who were

involved in religion and had increased ESI scores. There were also differences in the

scores on Pa (scale 6), Pt (scale 7), and Sc (scale 8). The rest of the clinical scales

except for Mf (scale 5) and Ma (scale 9) showed significant correlations with at least one

dimension of the ESI. The researchers found that clinically significant levels of MMPI-2

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