scores were related to religious involvement and predictive of ESI scores. MacDonald
and Holland (2003) suggested that the MMPI-2 holds potential for exploring the relation
of psychopathology to spirituality.
The value placed on personality assessments for individuals entering ministry is
also evident in the literature. For example, Batsis (1993) surveyed 154 Roman Catholic
vocation directors regarding the use of psychological assessment for applicants to
seminary and religious orders. The author found that 91% utilized the MMPI, 57%
utilized the Sentence Completion instrument, 45% used the Rorschach, 34% utilized the
Thematic Apperception Test, 30% utilized the Strong-Campbell, 30% used the Weschler
Adult Intelligence Scale, Revised and 30% utilized the Draw-A-Person instrument. Over
half of the survey respondents indicated that psychological assessment is an important
part of the assessment process and 70% indicated that the assessor should be familiar
with issues surrounding a religious vocation. Yet, this study did not provide data to
demonstrate that participant scores on these measures were able to predict program
success and post-graduate success.
Summarizing MMPI results from several studies, Nauss (1973) found that there
was a distinctly visible pattern for seminary students. Scores on Hy (scale 3), Pd (scale
4), Pa (scale 6), Pt (scale 7), Sc (scale 8) and Ma (scale 9) were found to be regularly
between one-half to one standard deviation above the Mean. Scores on Hs (scale 1) and
D (scale 2) were between the Mean to one-half standard deviation above the Mean. The
scores for Mf (scale 5) and K were just above one standard deviation above the Mean and
scores on Si (scale 0) were found to be within one standard deviation below the Mean.