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PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF COUNSELING STUDENTS AT A - page 35 / 135

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scores were related to religious involvement and predictive of ESI scores. MacDonald

and Holland (2003) suggested that the MMPI-2 holds potential for exploring the relation

of psychopathology to spirituality.

The value placed on personality assessments for individuals entering ministry is

also evident in the literature. For example, Batsis (1993) surveyed 154 Roman Catholic

vocation directors regarding the use of psychological assessment for applicants to

seminary and religious orders. The author found that 91% utilized the MMPI, 57%

utilized the Sentence Completion instrument, 45% used the Rorschach, 34% utilized the

Thematic Apperception Test, 30% utilized the Strong-Campbell, 30% used the Weschler

Adult Intelligence Scale, Revised and 30% utilized the Draw-A-Person instrument. Over

half of the survey respondents indicated that psychological assessment is an important

part of the assessment process and 70% indicated that the assessor should be familiar

with issues surrounding a religious vocation. Yet, this study did not provide data to

demonstrate that participant scores on these measures were able to predict program

success and post-graduate success.

Summarizing MMPI results from several studies, Nauss (1973) found that there

was a distinctly visible pattern for seminary students. Scores on Hy (scale 3), Pd (scale

4), Pa (scale 6), Pt (scale 7), Sc (scale 8) and Ma (scale 9) were found to be regularly

between one-half to one standard deviation above the Mean. Scores on Hs (scale 1) and

D (scale 2) were between the Mean to one-half standard deviation above the Mean. The

scores for Mf (scale 5) and K were just above one standard deviation above the Mean and

scores on Si (scale 0) were found to be within one standard deviation below the Mean.

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