# scores of students. Using The Theological School Inventory (Hunt, Cardwell, & Dittes,

1976) to group Master of Divinity students as theologically “Liberal” or “Conservative”,

# Stone (1989) found that theological position could be discriminated. Those who were

labeled theologically “liberal” scored higher on Mf (scale 5) and Pa (scale 6), while those

labeled as “Conservatives” scored higher on scales L and Si (scale 0). The results of this

study indicate the importance of considering theological persuasion when comparing

personality characteristics to others who are successful and satisfied in the counseling

profession.

Using the MMPI, a number of studies have attempted to predict those who

complete their seminary training. For example, Stone (1990) studied the usefulness of

the MMPI and the Theological School Inventory (TSI; Hunt et al., 1976) to predict

whether 552 male and female Master of Divinity students persist or drop out of a

# Protestant seminary. Stone (1990) noted that more research has taken place at Roman

# Catholic institutions than at Protestant schools. Because previous research has had mixed

results, the researcher sought to focus on examining the overall pattern of the MMPI

scores and not look at the scales separately. A cumulative score was derived for each

person from all of the clinical scales except Mf (scale 5), Ma (scale 9), and Si (scale 0).

# The students were categorized into three groups: elevated MMPI, moderate MMPI, and

low MMPI. The elevated group was at least one standard deviation above the Mean

(>.70), the moderate group within one standard deviation of the Mean (-.70 to .70), and

the low group one standard deviation below the Mean (< .70). Results of the study

showed that 47% of the students with elevated MMPI scores dropped out of the

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