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PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF COUNSELING STUDENTS AT A - page 42 / 135

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person’s personality that contribute to a person’s success and satisfaction in the

counseling profession. Another example of a shortcoming of the MMPI-2 is that it does

not clearly measure some aspects of personality, such as openness. This has significant

implications, as it is recognized in the literature that openness has an impact upon career

choice (McCrae & Costa, 2003). More research is needed to investigate the usefulness of

other personality assessments in filling this information gap that the MMPI-2 alone does

not provide.

The Five-Factor Model and the Revised NEO Personality Inventory

Piedmont (1998) has defined personality as “…the intrinsic organization of an

individual’s mental world that is stable over time and consistent over situations” (p. 2).

Having an opportunity to describe personality in a meaningful taxonomy has important

implications for the communication and application of research (Barrick & Mount, 1991).

In recent years, the quest to conceptualize personality has focused much on the Five-

Factor Model (FFM; Digman, 1996), although there has been criticism that there are

methodological, empirical, semantic and theoretical difficulties that have not been

considered (Block, 1995). There has also been criticism that claims for

comprehensiveness were premature (Waller & Ben-Porath, 1987) and that there has not

been enough evidence to support the uniqueness of the Five-Factor model (Eysenck,

1992). It has been alleged that the psychoanalytic, behavioral and humanistic schools of

psychology have been formulating the personality theories that have been commonly

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