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known but each has emphasized certain characteristics of an individual to the exclusion

of others (McCrae & Costa, 2003).

The FFM resulted from a factor analysis of a number of personality inventories

that synthesized personality traits into five dimensions that were nicknamed the “Big

Five” (Hood & Johnson, 1997). Early considerations of the Big Five of personality were

revealed in 1933 by Louis Thurstone, but it remained relatively obscure until the 1980’s

(Digman, 1996). There was a lag in interest for this model until it was researched again

by Lewis R. Goldberg in the early 1980’s (McCrae & Costa, 2003). Goldberg (1990)

concluded that an analysis of trait adjectives of personality will yield a variant of the Big

Five. In the past couple of decades the FFM has attracted attention because it is based

upon trait research and many psychologists have been interested in a process-oriented

approach to personality (McCrae & Costa, 2003). Traits have been defined as the

dimensions of individual differences in tendencies to show consistent patterns of

thoughts, feeling, and actions (McCrae & Costa, 2003). The five factors of personality

that were found from this lexical approach to personality have been named: Neuroticism,

Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness and the NEO PI-R is an

assessment instrument that has been developed to measure these five factors of

personality (Piedmont, 1998). The NEO PI-R measures these five factors of personality

at five broad domain levels, and each domain is represented by six, more specific scales

that measure facets of the domain (Costa & McCrae, 1992).

Neuroticism is a general tendency to experience negative affect such as fear,

sadness, embarrassment, anger, guilt, and disgust. It describes the tendency to have

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