irrational ideas, struggle with controlling impulses, and to cope more poorly than others
with stress. A person with a high score on Neuroticism may be at risk for
psychopathology, but does not necessarily have a psychiatric disorder. A person with a
low score on Neuroticism is calm, even-tempered, and is less apt to be upset in stressful
situations (Costa & McCrae, 1992).
Extraversion involves the variances of preference for social interaction and lively
activity. A person with high scores on Extraversion is apt to be talkative, gregarious,
socially poised, and assertive in behavior. A person with low scores on Extraversion is
more emotionally bland, likely to avoid close relationships, exercise overcontrol impulses
and submissive (McCrae & Costa, 2003; McCrae, Costa, & Busch, 1986).
Openness is a major dimension of personality that involves a person’s
imagination, preference for variety, intellectual curiosity, aesthetic sensitivity, attendance
to inner feelings, and independence of judgment. A person with a high score on
Openness is curious about the inner and outer world, and is willing to entertain novel
ideas and unconventional values. He or she also experiences emotions more keenly, and
is unconventional, willing to question authority. A person who scores low on Openness
tends to be conventional in behavior, conservative in outlook, prefer the familiar, and
have muted emotional responses (Costa & McCrae, 1992).
Agreeableness is a dimension of interpersonal tendencies and may be measured
by a person’s selfless concern for others and generous sentiments, or his or her aptness to
be tough minded and hardheaded. A person scoring high on Agreeableness is
sympathetic, considerate, warm, compassionate, and behaves in a giving way. A person