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PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF COUNSELING STUDENTS AT A - page 45 / 135

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scoring low on Agreeableness is critical, skeptical, shows condescending behavior, tries

to push the limits, and expresses hostility directly (McCrae & Costa, 2003; McCrae et

al.,1986).

Conscientiousness is a person’s tendency to be organized and push for

achievement. A person scoring high on Conscientious people is ambitious, hardworking,

and duty-minded. A person who scores low on Conscientiousness is more lackadaisical,

easygoing, and exacts less of self and others (McCrae & Costa, 2003).

The FFM has support from numerous studies that indicate that it is

comprehensive, and that these five factors have deep conceptual roots in the

psychological literature (McCrae & Costa, 1996). Using three studies to examine its

validity, Goldberg (1990) demonstrated the generalizability and comprehensiveness of

the Big Five factor structure of personality, giving strong support that the five factors are

robust. Research also shows that there is stability of personality traits through adulthood

(Costa & McCrae, 1994; Soldz & Vaillant, 1999).

Studies have also shown the generalizability of the Five-Factor model across

cultures. McCrae and Costa (1997) compared data generated from the Revised NEO

Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R) for American, German, Portuguese, Hebrew, Chinese,

Korean, and Japanese samples. The researchers found remarkable similarities in the

production of the five factors and that the findings were good news for cross-cultural

psychology.

It has been proposed that the Five-Factor Model of personality is essential to the

study of individual differences and that it helps to integrate the literature that has been

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