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PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF COUNSELING STUDENTS AT A - page 52 / 135

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To further the understanding of how personality variables relate to vocational

behaviors, Reed, Bruch, and Haase (2004) examined ways that the dimensions of the

Five-Factor Model predict career exploration variables. A questionnaire booklet was

completed by 204 undergraduate students in the Northeast that included a short version of

the NEO PI-R (NEO-FFI) and four assessments of the students’ career exploration. The

four variables of career exploration were self-exploration, career information seeking

behavior, stress regarding career exploration, and career exploration self-efficacy. The

researchers found that 12.4% of the multivariate variance of the career variables was

accounted for by the multivariate variance of the personality variables.

Several significant themes were found in the vocational counseling and

industrial/organizational psychology literature from 1993-1997 by Tokar, Fischer, and

Subich (1998). A moderate overlap of personality and vocational interests emerged and

lower Neuroticism and higher Extraversion was more frequently associated with higher

job satisfaction. Higher Conscientiousness was also generally a good predictor of job

performance and Extraversion was a relevant predictor for those jobs having an

interpersonal performance component. The researchers commended the use of the Five-

Factor Model of personality for further research.

The selection of a vocation, vocational behavior, and vocational satisfaction has

been researched using Holland’s RIASEC model of Person-Environment congruence

(Holland, 1997). To determine the extent that personality factors predict job satisfaction

beyond Holland’s concept of vocational congruence, Tokar and Subich (1997) studied the

contribution of congruence as measured by the Self Directed Search (Holland, 1985) and

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