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PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF COUNSELING STUDENTS AT A - page 56 / 135

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characteristics necessary for counseling work (Collins, 2007). Methods utilized in the

selection of students but deemed inadequate include the Graduate Record Exam, an

interview, and others (Bradey & Post, 1991; Markert & Monke, 1990; Smaby et al., 2005.

The personality characteristics of a counselor have been associated with therapy

effectiveness (Carkhuff, 1966; Luborsky et al., 1985; Pope & Kline, 1999; Rogers, 1957;

Rogers, 1958; Truax, 1963). The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI;

MMPI-2) has been extensively used for personality assessment, the assessment of

students, counselors, seminary students, clergy, and missionaries (Cottle & Lewis, 1954;

Dillon, 1983; Harrison et al., 1988; Jansen, Bonk, & Garvey, 1973; Naus, 1973; Phillips,

1970). Differences in scale scores were frequently noted for these various groups, and in

particular, for efficacy in counseling. There is a gap in the literature as to how the scale

score differences of the MMPI (and MMPI-2) predict a counselor’s satisfaction or

perceived efficacy in the profession.

The Five-Factor Model, measured by the Revised NEO Personality Inventory

(NEO PI-R), its shortened version (the NEO-FFI) and others has also been extensively

used for personality assessment, academic, vocational, and counselor assessment (Bakker

et al., 2006; Costa & McCrae, 1992; De Fruyt & Mervielde, 1996; Lounsbury et al.,

1999; Piedmont, 1998). These measures of the Five-Factors have been useful to

discriminate students on certain aspects of academic achievement, assist individuals in

vocational decisions, and predict the burnout of counseling volunteers. However, there is

a gap in the literature on how scale score differences of measures of the Five-Factor

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