The applicant to the Pastoral Counseling Programs at the seminary is required to
complete the first 370 questions of the MMPI-2. Although the complete MMPI-2 has a
large number of subscales, the first 370 questions comprise the 10 basic clinical scales
and the validity scales used in this study. The 10 clinical scales and the three validity
scales were delineated and defined in the second chapter.
For a one-week interval, the test-retest coefficients of reliability for 111 females
in the MMPI-2 normative sample scored in the range of .54-.92 and for 82 males in the
MMPI-2 normative sample the test-retest coefficients of reliability scored in the range of
.70-.93 (Butcher et al., 2001). The validity of the MMPI and the MMPI-2 has been well
established in the literature and the MMPI-2 is used in various settings, including
outpatient, forensic, correctional, and employment screening settings (Graham, 2006).
There has been varied opinion voiced in the literature as to the definition of a high score
on the various clinical scales of the MMPI-2 and much more research is needed to give
meaning to low scores in differing settings as well (Graham, 2006).
The NEO PI-R is a measure of normal personality traits and consists of 240 items
that are answered on a 5-point scale (Costa & McCrae, 1992) and are balanced to control
for the effects of acquiescence (Piedmont, 1998). It is an instrument to concisely
measure the five major domains of personality: Neuroticism (N), Extraversion (E),
Openness (O), Agreeableness (A), Conscientiousness (C) and 6 facets that define each
domain (Costa & McCrae, 1992). This study utilized the NEO PI-R domain scale scores
only to depict the personality characteristics of the counseling program graduates.