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PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF COUNSELING STUDENTS AT A - page 64 / 135

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Although these domain scores help to provide an understanding of personality at the

broadest level (Costa & McCrae, 1992), facet scales have been described as partitions of

the larger spectrum (Piedmont, 1998) and may give greater insight into the nuances of the

domain scores. Any domain that is identified having a relationship with counselor

success, satisfaction and self-perceived effectiveness should be explored at the facet level

in future research.

Originally introduced in 1985, the earlier version of the instrument had scales that

were supported by research at the facet level for Neuroticism, Extraversion, and

Openness, but the two domains of Conscientiousness and Agreeableness were still only at

the global level until its revision in 1990 (Costa & McCrae, 1992). Built upon the

taxonomy of the Five-Factor model (McCrae & Costa, 2003) the NEO PI-R has two

versions, the self-report form that is appropriate for men and women of all ages and an

observer-report form that has been written in the third person so that a peer, spouse or

expert can assess an individual (Costa & McCrae, 1992). Administration of the NEO PI-

R is appropriate to persons 17 years of age and older and although there is no time limit,

usually requires 30-40 minutes to complete (Costa & McCrae, 1992). Validity for the

test-taker of the NEO PI-R is assessed by three questions at the bottom of the scoring

sheet requesting whether the person taking the assessment has answered all of the

questions, has done so honestly and accurately and marked the responses in the correct

areas.

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