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PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF COUNSELING STUDENTS AT A - page 65 / 135

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As disclosed in the manual, internal consistency coefficient alpha for 1539 self-

reporting subjects on the domain scales ranged from .86 to .95 and on the facet scales

ranged from .56 to .81. Noting that validity of an assessment can change with different

samples and when used with different purposes, the manual provides validity of the NEO

PI-R based upon other external criteria.

A profile for an individual is constructed by converting raw scores to T scores

with a Mean of 50 and a standard deviation of 10 for the 5 domain scores and each of the

30 facet scores. The profile forms are dependent on the age and gender of the person

assessed. The profile based upon age has a normative sample of individuals aged 17-20

and another profile form is based upon a normative sample of individuals aged 21 and up

(Costa & McCrae, 1992). T scores are profiled as very low when they are approximately

in the 20-35 range, low when approximately in the 35-45 range, average when

approximately in the 45-55 range, high when approximately in the 55-65 range, and very

high when approximately 65 and up.

The survey for this study was a questionnaire mailed to graduates of the

counseling program for whom there was complete MMPI-2 and NEO PI-R data available

(n = 116). This information was used to assess the relationship between personality of

the graduates and their current involvement in the counseling profession.

Although surveys are frequently used in the social sciences for research, there are

numerous limitations and concerns. External validity may be a problem as the survey

results received may not represent the target population and the survey may have poor

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