As disclosed in the manual, internal consistency coefficient alpha for 1539 self-
reporting subjects on the domain scales ranged from .86 to .95 and on the facet scales
ranged from .56 to .81. Noting that validity of an assessment can change with different
samples and when used with different purposes, the manual provides validity of the NEO
PI-R based upon other external criteria.
A profile for an individual is constructed by converting raw scores to T scores
with a Mean of 50 and a standard deviation of 10 for the 5 domain scores and each of the
30 facet scores. The profile forms are dependent on the age and gender of the person
assessed. The profile based upon age has a normative sample of individuals aged 17-20
and another profile form is based upon a normative sample of individuals aged 21 and up
(Costa & McCrae, 1992). T scores are profiled as very low when they are approximately
in the 20-35 range, low when approximately in the 35-45 range, average when
approximately in the 45-55 range, high when approximately in the 55-65 range, and very
high when approximately 65 and up.
The survey for this study was a questionnaire mailed to graduates of the
counseling program for whom there was complete MMPI-2 and NEO PI-R data available
(n = 116). This information was used to assess the relationship between personality of
the graduates and their current involvement in the counseling profession.
Although surveys are frequently used in the social sciences for research, there are
numerous limitations and concerns. External validity may be a problem as the survey
results received may not represent the target population and the survey may have poor