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PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF COUNSELING STUDENTS AT A - page 92 / 135

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effectiveness. Results showed no statistically significant correlation, but a noteworthy

trend for a negative correlation between self-perceived effectiveness and the

Agreeableness domain of the NEO PI-R. This trend may suggest that graduates of the

counseling program who perceive themselves effective may be less likely to have a self-

less concern for others and may have an aptness to be tough minded and hardheaded.

The third hypothesis was not supported.

Discussion of the Findings

Discussion of Hypothesis One

The primary assumption in this hypothesis was that the personality of seminary

counselor education students as measured by the MMPI-2 and the NEO PI-R would be

significantly correlated with GPA earned by the students at the conclusion of their course

of study. This hypothesis was not supported after Bonferroni adjustments were taken into

consideration. Bonferroni adjustments may prevent a researcher from making a Type I

error when the same data is subjected to multiple correlations (Abdi, 2007). A Type I

error occurs when it is concluded by the researcher that there is a relationship between

the variables when in fact there is not, and a Type II error occurs when it is concluded

that there are not any relationships between the variables when in fact there are.

However, there is criticism that the Bonferroni adjustments may increase Type II errors,

and that truly important differences will be deemed non-significant (Perneger, 1998).

Although the correlation of the scores for these personality assessments and GPA

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