effectiveness. Results showed no statistically significant correlation, but a noteworthy
trend for a negative correlation between self-perceived effectiveness and the
Agreeableness domain of the NEO PI-R. This trend may suggest that graduates of the
counseling program who perceive themselves effective may be less likely to have a self-
less concern for others and may have an aptness to be tough minded and hardheaded.
The third hypothesis was not supported.
Discussion of the Findings
Discussion of Hypothesis One
The primary assumption in this hypothesis was that the personality of seminary
counselor education students as measured by the MMPI-2 and the NEO PI-R would be
significantly correlated with GPA earned by the students at the conclusion of their course
of study. This hypothesis was not supported after Bonferroni adjustments were taken into
consideration. Bonferroni adjustments may prevent a researcher from making a Type I
error when the same data is subjected to multiple correlations (Abdi, 2007). A Type I
error occurs when it is concluded by the researcher that there is a relationship between
the variables when in fact there is not, and a Type II error occurs when it is concluded
that there are not any relationships between the variables when in fact there are.
However, there is criticism that the Bonferroni adjustments may increase Type II errors,
and that truly important differences will be deemed non-significant (Perneger, 1998).
Although the correlation of the scores for these personality assessments and GPA