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PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF COUNSELING STUDENTS AT A - page 93 / 135

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did not show statistical significance on any of the scales or domains, the trend for a

negative correlation with scale 3 (Hy), scale 8 (Sc), and the L scale of the MMPI-2 may

be indicative that personality does influence a student’s GPA. Persons who score high on

scale 3 (Hy) may experience feelings of being overwhelmed with life and experience a

lack of energy (Graham, 2006). The attainment of a GPA 3.9 in the seminary

counselor education program requires dutiful diligence, sustained commitment of time

and energy, as well as a determination to excel despite obstacles encountered. It also

may require the dismissal of immediate gratification of the present to achieve goals of the

distant future. The findings of this study showing a trend for a negative correlation of

scale 3 (Hy) and a student’s final GPA are not surprising. It is also not surprising that

there was a tendency for a negative correlation of scale 8 (Sc) and GPA. Persons who

score high on scale 8 (Sc) are likely to have cognitive activity that is effortful, unreliable,

and find sustained intellectual performance difficult (Nichols, 2001). Although these

individuals are often described as sharp-witted, their tendency towards confused,

disorganized, and disoriented cognitive processes is problematic (Graham, 2006).

Counselor education is a challenging course of study that requires an ability to

appropriately master a vast amount of subject material. The depth of intellectual

interaction that is required can be challenging. Any propensity towards disorganized

cognitive processes will likely be evident in a student’s GPA.

Daehnert and Carter (1987) found that the personality variables measured by the

MMPI were useful and accurate predictors of performance for graduate school in

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