have a successful or satisfying counseling career, but a higher score on this scale may be
indicative of a determination to complete their course of study to achieve licensure.
However, the interpretation of these results is very tenuous. The counselor education
program at the seminary has two tracks of study (licensure and non-licensure) and a very
high percentage of the respondents in this study completed the licensure track.
Again, as already seen with final GPA, the L scale of the MMPI-2 demonstrated a
trend for a negative correlation with licensure acquisition. A person scoring higher on
the L scale wants to be seen in a favorable light (Graham, 2006) and, therefore, it seems
reasonable that achieving licensure is an important aspect of professional status.
However, the L scale is one of the impression management scales (Nichols, 2001) and a
possible explanation for these results is that a person scoring higher on the L scale is
concerned with failing the licensure exam, and in order to make sure that the best
impression is made, delays taking it promptly after graduation. Although no studies were
found in the literature that linked procrastination or indecisiveness with this scale, a
person may vacillate on whether to proceed with the licensure process promptly
following graduation. The internship phase of counselor education exposes a student to
the requirement of counselors to connect with people on a deep and empathic level,
reflecting on self and others. The uneasiness that may have been experienced by the
student interacting with a client in the internship phase of their education may cause the
counseling student with higher scores on the L scale to pause and reconsider entering the
profession. The depth of reflection and accountability in internship supervision may also