THE AUTHOR'S TESTIMONY TO HIMSELF
tion he mentions the name John: the former of these Johns he puts in the same list with Peter and James and Matthew and the other apostles, clearly indicating the evangelist; but the latter he places with others, in a separate clause, outside the number of the apostles, placing Aristion before him; and he clearly calls him ‘elder.’ So that he hereby proves their state- ment to be true who have said that two persons in Asia have borne the same name, and that there were two tombs at Ephesus, each of which is said to this day still to be John's."1
Following the deductions of Eusebius stated in the second paragraph, it has been assumed that there were two Johns, the son of Zebedee and the elder of Ephesus, and that the latter wrote the Gospel.
In 1943 J. M. Sanders propounded the thesis that the Fourth Gospel originated in Alexandria, and that it was later imported into Asia, where its origin was credited to John the Presbyter.2 It had originally been used by the Gnostics, who ascribed it to a man named "John." In Asia this writer was identified with the Presbyter, who, in turn, was considered by many to have been the apostle. Irenaeus who lived in Ephe- sus adopted the latter view, from which the traditional author- ship was derived. In a later essay published in New Testament Studies Sanders suggested that the beloved disciple was Laz- arus of Bethany who wrote the Gospel, and that afterward it was edited and published by John the Presbyter in Ephe- sus.3 Still later, he drew a distinction between Lazarus and the unnamed disciple mentioned in John 20:2 because of the dif- ference in the verbs descriptive of them: agapao used of Laz- arus; phileo, of the unnamed disciple. Sanders then advanced the "admittedly highly speculative" idea that the disciple whom Jesus loved (egapa) was Lazarus, and that the other disciple, whom Jesus loved (ephilei) was John Mark, the son of Mary, who later settled in Ephesus, and was known as "The Elder." He defended his position on the ground that there could have been two Marks in Jerusalem at the same time.4
1 Eusebius, Historia Ecclesiac III, 39. Translation of B. J. Kidd in J. Ste- venson, ed., A New Eusebius, p. 50. J. N. Sanders, The Fourth Gospel in the Early Church, pp. 43-46. Sanders, "Those Whom Jesus Loved," New Testament Studies, I, 29-41. Sanders, "Who Was the Disciple Whom Jesus Loved?" Studies in the Fourth Gospel, F. L. Cross, pp. 72-82. 2 3 4