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THE AUTHOR'S TESTIMONY TO HIMSELF

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maintain this position.

The purpose of this lecture, however, is not to reopen a controversy nor to argue a case. The writer is personally con- vinced that the author of the Gospel was John, the son of Zebedee, aided perhaps by a scribe. The main objective is not to debate the identity of the author, but to show how his per- sonality is projected into his writing, and to estimate the effect produced by that projection.

The evidence may be classified under specific allusions and indirect effect. Specific allusions comprise the references to the "other disciple" or the "beloved disciple" who is finally identified with the writer (21:24). The indirect reflections include the use of the first person plural verb, which occurs at least once (1:14), the implications of personal knowledge, disclosed by the small details which only an eyewitness would notice, the personal and doctrinal interests that reveal un- consciously the writer's predilections, the explanations and footnotes inserted for the benefit of the reader, and the vo- cabulary which is peculiar to the author's framework of thought. From these bits of information one may reconstruct a picture of the personality through which this Gospel was given to men.

The specific allusions to the author are stated in the third person, and are confined to the last section of the Gospel which deals with the Passion of Christ. The first of these occurs in the account of the last supper: "There was at the table reclining in Jesus' bosom one of his disciples, whom Jesus loved (Gr. on egapa ho Jesous). Simon Peter therefore beckoneth to him, and saith unto him, Tell us who it is of whom he speaketh. He leaning back, as he was, on Jesus' breast saith unto him, Lord, who is it?" (13:23-25). The unnamed disciple unmistakably belonged to the inner circle of Jesus' followers, and was even closer to Him than Simon Peter, the acknowledged leader of the group. Assuredly he was acquainted with the other eleven, and knew well their mental and spiritual traits. Furthermore, when Jesus an- swered the request which he relayed from Peter, he must have realized instantly from the following action that Judas was the prospective traitor. There is, however, no intimation that he in turn told Peter. In the tension and confusion of

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