THE AUTHOR'S TESTIMONY TO HIMSELF
knowledgement of grace. It is quite likely that the phrase, “we beheld his glory” (1:14), is a recollection of the trans- figuration, which is narrated in detail by the Synoptics (Matt. 17:1-8; Mark 9:2-8; Luke 9:28-36). If so, it indicates that the entire Gospel is written in the afterglow of the author's total earthly experience of Jesus, and that the memories of the days in Judea, and Galilee were blended with his inward understanding that came after the resurrection (John 2:22; 20:9).
Many other features of this Gospel reveal the touch of its author. He observes that the first disciples interviewed Jesus "about the tenth hour" (1:39); that there were six waterpots of stone at the wedding feast of Cana (2:6); that the woman at the well "left her waterpot, and went away into the city" (4:28); that at the feeding of the five thousand "there was much grass in the place" (6:10); and he records numerous small details of time and place that would be important only to an eyewitness. These incidental items have no theological significance, but they confirm the feeling that the content of this Gospel is original and vital. The author is recalling the impressions that he received at the time when the events occurred, and is making them a part of the picture which he paints.
The author was keenly interested in personality and in its spiritual development. Eight of the apostles, Andrew, Peter, Philip, Nathanael, Thomas, Judas Lebbaeus, and Judas Is- cariot, are definitely named, and "the sons of Zebedee" are mentioned in the last scene at the Lake of Galilee. Nicodemus, Joseph of Arimathea, Lazarus of Bethany, and Malchus, the servant of the high priest seem to have been personal ac- quaintances; others, like the the nobleman of Cana, the woman of Samaria, the paralytic at the pool of Bethesda, and the man born blind are not identifield by name, but the characterizations of them, though given in a few words, are deft and original.
With few exceptions, each one becomes the example of some spiritual principle or of some reaction to the person of Christ that fits into, the major purpose and plot of the Gospel. Philip, for instance, illustrates the progress of faith in an essentially materialistic mind. After his initial contact with