Figure 7: Section of ovary in T. zillii fed 10g NLM/kg diet showing increased atretic follicle and hydropic degeneration. Mag. X 40.
Figure 8: Section of ovary in T. zillii fed 20g NLM/kg diet showing increased atretic follicles, ruptured follicles and necrosis. Mag. X 40.
In this study, the damage done to tissues of the testes and ovaries was minimal at lower dietary NLM level (10g/kg diet), and at higher dietary NLM level (20 g/kg diet), it caused disintegration of many more cells, rendering the testes and ovaries devoid of spermatids and oocytes, respectively. This makes dry neem leaves recommendable for use in the control of breeding in tilapias. Histological observations of testes and ovaries in T. zillii fed diets containing NLM revealed that neem leaves may be effective as sterility-inducing agents as they were destructive to testes and ovary tissues; and is useful in the determination of the contraceptive efficacies of dietary NLM in combating problems of tilapia overpopulation in ponds. Other than infertility, literature did not indicate any adverse reactions from the consumption of neem leaves.
Bodharkar, S.L., S.K. Garg and V.S. Mathus 1974. Antifertility screening: Part IX. Effect of five indigenous plants on early pregnancy in female albino rats. Indian Journal of Medical Research 62: 831-37.
Cumaranatunga, P.R.T. and H. Thabrew. 1989. Effects of a legume (Vigna catiang) substituted diets on the ovarian development of Oreochromis niloticus (L.). pp. 333-344, In: Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Feeding and Nutrition in Fish.