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THE EFFECTS OF RECIPROCAL TEACHING ON ENGLISH READING - page 103 / 233

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students asked only one question that did not focus on the main idea. But after three

weeks working in groups, they improved their questioning strategy. They asked more

than one question which focused also on the main idea in the later stage.

Clarifying.

During the early section of learning, the proficient students clarified the unknown

words by using word formation and some references in the context. In the later section,

they did not only use word formation, context clues, and dictionaries, but they also asked

their friends in their group. Moreover, the words they clarified were important words in

the paragraph and both the proficient and less proficient students improved their usage of

the clarifying strategy (see Appendix H).

The less proficient students clarified the words and references they did not know,

although they realized that it was not important to know every word to understand the

main idea of the paragraph. However, they improved the way of clarifying in the later

section when they clarified the more important words and references by using their

background knowledge, context clues, and dictionaries (see Appendix H).

Summarizing.

In the early section, both the proficient and less proficient students connected the

main idea of each paragraph in order to summarize. The sentences they wrote were

copied from the content of the text and their summaries were inadequate or too detailed.

But overtime, their summaries improved. The less proficient students summarized an

important point of the content and used most of their words even if they did not use

grammatically correct sentences. The summaries of the proficient students became more

complete. They used most of their own words and based their writing on the main point

of the text (see Appendix H).

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