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THE EFFECTS OF RECIPROCAL TEACHING ON ENGLISH READING - page 115 / 233

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As for the use of the ten metacognitive strategies, it was found from the

questionnaire that the participants employed them more often after they studied through

reciprocal teaching. Reciprocal teaching, which consists of four main reading strategies

(Predicting, Clarifying, Questioning, and Summarizing), can promote other metacognitive

reading strategies like Verification Prediction, Self-management, Goal Setting, Note

Taking, Inferences, Selective Attention, and Self-evaluation.

In this study, the participants used the three parts of the metacognitive processing:

planning, monitoring, and evaluating (Cohen, 1998; Pressley, 2002). Through planning,

the readers organized their reading before actually getting into a text. Examples of this

taken from Appendix J, question 1, include these statements from the participants

themselves:

“Set a goal to find main idea. First, look at the title to guess what the text is

about.”

“If there are questions in the text, I will read them in order to set a goal and

find the answers”

“Set a goal before reading such as finding the main idea, clarifying some words, and

summarizing.”

The participants designed a goal before reading and organized what they should

do while reading and after reading. The students used Predicting as instructed from

reciprocal teaching, which promoted their use of Prediction, Background Activation, Self-

management, and Goal Setting. They predicted by using their background knowledge and

they also planned before reading by using Self-management, and Goal Setting. While

reading, they controlled those steps or planned and checked their prediction. They used

all four main metacognitive reading strategies, which also promoted the other

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