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THE EFFECTS OF RECIPROCAL TEACHING ON ENGLISH READING - page 119 / 233

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they knew the process of reading (see Appendix I). Moreover, they were aware of how

and when to use the four key strategies to complete their reading task. This awareness

was a direct result of the teacher’s scaffolding and explicit instruction.

The four main strategies.

In this study, the participants used four main metacognitive reading strategies:

predicting, questioning, clarifying, and summarizing to foster and monitor their reading

comprehension.

Predicting

With predictions, reading comprehension improved when students were required

to draw connections between their own background knowledge and new learning

(Pearson & Fielding, 1991). Moreover using background knowledge determined the goal

and hypothesis on a reading text. This increased motivation and interest which are vital

elements for enhancing comprehension (Armbruster, Anderson & Ostertag, 1987). The

participants wanted to know if their predictions were correct so they read consciously to

confirm their hypothesis (see Appendix I).

In the experimental group, the participants predicted what the content of the

passage they were going to read was about. For instance, they predicted the content of the

passage “Many Faces One Body” from the title (from Appendix I, page 1).

S1: Let’s look at the title. What do you think it is about?

S2: Many faces.

S3: Um… The personality of different people.

S2: One person with many personalities.

S1: Let’s check.

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