they knew the process of reading (see Appendix I). Moreover, they were aware of how
and when to use the four key strategies to complete their reading task. This awareness
was a direct result of the teacher’s scaffolding and explicit instruction.
The four main strategies.
In this study, the participants used four main metacognitive reading strategies:
predicting, questioning, clarifying, and summarizing to foster and monitor their reading
With predictions, reading comprehension improved when students were required
to draw connections between their own background knowledge and new learning
(Pearson & Fielding, 1991). Moreover using background knowledge determined the goal
and hypothesis on a reading text. This increased motivation and interest which are vital
elements for enhancing comprehension (Armbruster, Anderson & Ostertag, 1987). The
participants wanted to know if their predictions were correct so they read consciously to
confirm their hypothesis (see Appendix I).
In the experimental group, the participants predicted what the content of the
passage they were going to read was about. For instance, they predicted the content of the
passage “Many Faces One Body” from the title (from Appendix I, page 1).
S1: Let’s look at the title. What do you think it is about?
S2: Many faces.
S3: Um… The personality of different people.
S2: One person with many personalities.
S1: Let’s check.