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THE EFFECTS OF RECIPROCAL TEACHING ON ENGLISH READING - page 120 / 233

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Predicting helps students activate their relevant background knowledge (Palincsar

& Brown, 1984; Duffy, 2002). Moreover, when students make predictions about a

reading topic and use their prior knowledge, they are more likely to comprehend the text

(Wiseman, 1992).

In this study, in their reading, the participants first had a general look at a

paragraph to see its overall content and to verify whether their predictions were correct.

They planned what to do before reading. This motivated them to be more involved in

their own reading. Moreover, they knew that predicting helped them improve their

reading ability. For example, from the answers they gave to interview question 2, it can

be seen that the students viewed predicting as help to improve their reading because it

gave a more complete picture of the text. One student stated, “Prediction helped me

improve my reading ability because most of the titles are related to the content of the text.

Though they did not give much information on the text, they helped me guess the

direction of the text.” (from Appendix J, Question 2)

Questioning

Questioning helps readers find the questions they should ask themselves to get to

the main point of a paragraph. This requires them to integrate control processes. As is

evident from what the participants themselves mentioned in the audio-taped dialogues

(see Appendix I), to gain the information on a text they must activate their prior

knowledge, access reading strategies and text information, rehearse new information, and

employ strategies.

The ability to generate appropriate questions can enhance reading comprehension,

because it fosters active reading and promotes an ongoing processing of information.

Creating questions helps readers in two ways: a) it helps them determine a purpose for

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