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THE EFFECTS OF RECIPROCAL TEACHING ON ENGLISH READING - page 121 / 233

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reading and guides them towards identifying the most important information; b) it

requires them to construct answers as they read (Andre and Anderson, 1979). Asking

questions on the content of a paragraph is a means of enhancing reading comprehension.

In other words, it helps readers to identify the key elements of a text.

In this study, the students in the reciprocal teaching group created and answered

questions while reading. According to what has been said during the interviews, the

participants realized that “questioning helps me understand the content of the text.” (from

Appendix J, Question 5). In another example from the Reading Think Aloud Sheet (see

Appendix H), it can be seen that the participants improved their asking questions. This is

confirmed from the transcripts of the audio-taping in which it can be noticed that they

asked more questions focusing on the main idea (see Appendix I).

In conclusion, questioning is a metacognitive strategy that helped the participants

in the experimental group to plan their reading. It also helped them to self-monitor their

asking questions: if they were not able to give clear answers to clear questions, they

reread the information and clarified their understanding. As a result, questioning involved

them in more active comprehension.

Clarifying

Clarifying is a metacognitive strategy which critically evaluates a text by focusing

on key terms and ideas (King & Johnson, 1999). When comprehension breaks down,

readers may reread or move ahead in the text in order to find ways to clarify any

ambiguous information. Clarifying requires the readers to identify the parts of a text that

are clear. It also activates comprehension monitoring, which helps them eliminate reading

obstacles by rereading, using context clues or word formation, consulting the teacher or

peers, and using dictionaries.

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