Appendix H, Week 6). But later on, they better summarized the main ideas of all the
paragraphs and connected them in their own words, and this they did concisely and for
the whole passage (see Appendix H, Week 9). Moreover, they all agreed that
summarizing helped them better understand a passage.
In conclusion, and as can be seen from above, the metacognitive strategies
instructed through reciprocal teaching helped the participants in the experimental group
improve their reading comprehension. These four key strategies increased the awareness
of their own thinking and reading process. They knew what to do and how to do it before
reading, while reading, and after reading. They planned, monitored, and self-evaluated all
throughout the reading process. In other words, they set the purposes of reading and built
hypotheses on what they were about to read. Then, while reading, they tested these
hypotheses. They controlled their thinking process and awareness to comprehend a
passage. They also tried to solve the problems they faced while reading. Finally, they
evaluated their own comprehension. The participants in the experimental group
successfully conducted these reading processes.
After the teacher modeled the four main strategies and the reading processes to
complete the reading task, the students worked in groups of six. Each group included
students of mixed abilities. Working in groups, the students learnt from the other
members by sharing, discussing, and through peer tutoring. They regulated their own
rules on the basis of what they had learnt from this social setting and internalized this
knowledge. They engaged in a process of transformation through group discussion. For
example, some proficient students made these statements about working in groups (from
Appendix G, Question 11).