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THE EFFECTS OF RECIPROCAL TEACHING ON ENGLISH READING - page 123 / 233

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Appendix H, Week 6). But later on, they better summarized the main ideas of all the

paragraphs and connected them in their own words, and this they did concisely and for

the whole passage (see Appendix H, Week 9). Moreover, they all agreed that

summarizing helped them better understand a passage.

In conclusion, and as can be seen from above, the metacognitive strategies

instructed through reciprocal teaching helped the participants in the experimental group

improve their reading comprehension. These four key strategies increased the awareness

of their own thinking and reading process. They knew what to do and how to do it before

reading, while reading, and after reading. They planned, monitored, and self-evaluated all

throughout the reading process. In other words, they set the purposes of reading and built

hypotheses on what they were about to read. Then, while reading, they tested these

hypotheses. They controlled their thinking process and awareness to comprehend a

passage. They also tried to solve the problems they faced while reading. Finally, they

evaluated their own comprehension. The participants in the experimental group

successfully conducted these reading processes.

Social interaction.

After the teacher modeled the four main strategies and the reading processes to

complete the reading task, the students worked in groups of six. Each group included

students of mixed abilities. Working in groups, the students learnt from the other

members by sharing, discussing, and through peer tutoring. They regulated their own

rules on the basis of what they had learnt from this social setting and internalized this

knowledge. They engaged in a process of transformation through group discussion. For

example, some proficient students made these statements about working in groups (from

Appendix G, Question 11).

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