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THE EFFECTS OF RECIPROCAL TEACHING ON ENGLISH READING - page 17 / 233

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understanding of these concepts help Thai EFL readers develop a higher level of reading

comprehension.

Conceptualization of the Reading Process and Reading Strategies

Many researchers have defined reading using three models: the bottom-up, the

top-down, and the interactive models. There appears to be a consensus that reading is a

highly complex cognitive process that involves the reader, the text, and the interaction

between the reader and the text (Kern, 1989). In the reading process, the reader interacts

with the text to construct meaning from it using various kinds of background knowledge:

linguistic knowledge of words, sentences and paragraphs, and cognitive abilities (Carrell,

1989). Reading comprehension then involves a complex combination of the reader’s

cognitive process, language proficiency, and metacognitive processes (Cohen, 1998). For

example, the reader has to make inferences on the context of a text or on the end of a

story by using information from various sources: the title, the illustrations, or generally

from the previous paragraphs. In addition, readers have to monitor their reading behavior

and find out whether they understand the text (Grabe & Stoller, 2002). When a text is

difficult, the reader might reread it (parts of it or the whole of it), or he/she can ask

questions about it (Paris, Cross & Lipson, 1984). The reading comprehension processes

occur when the reader understands the information in a text and appropriately and

meaningfully interprets it (Grabe & Stoller, 2002).

Graves, Connie, and Bonnie (1998) explain that reading strategies are conscious

and flexible plans that readers apply and adapt to a variety of texts. Reading strategies

indicate how readers understand a task, what textual clues they attend to, how they make

sense of what they have read, and what they do when they do not understand the reading

texts (Block, 1992). In order to help students to comprehend reading texts, it is necessary

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