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THE EFFECTS OF RECIPROCAL TEACHING ON ENGLISH READING - page 175 / 233

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Think about life before modern communications. Until the 15th century, most people communicated only face-to-face or by handwritten letter. Books were made by hand, so they were rare and expensive. But after the printing press was invented, authors could tell their ideas to thousands of readers, cheaply and quickly. Questions ___________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________

Since the 19th century, sending messages has become easier and faster. First, Samuel Morse invented the telegraph in 1844. By sending simple clicking sounds over a wire, people could communicate between faraway places-instantly. Questions ___________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________

Then, after the telegraph, the telephone was invented in 1876. People could speak to each other from far away, using their own voices. Later came radio-one person could speak or sing to millions of listeners at the same time. After that, television allowed millions of people everywhere to see and hear the same pictures at the same time. Questions ___________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________

In the 1960s, satellites helped build a global communications network. Now we have audio cassettes, video cassettes, computers, e-mail, TELEX and FAX machines, too. And many people log on to the “Web.” In fact, we have everything we need for instant worldwide communication-except one single language!

Clarification

Clarifying occurs when there are comprehension breakdowns or confusions and the reader attempts to restore meaning. For example, the reference terms are unclear,

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