difficult or unfamiliar vocabulary is. To help the reader to understand the text, you should look for some signals: that is, or, in other words, such as, and for example. These signals may be in the previous or the next sentences. There are two ways for clarifying: reference and vocabulary. 1. Reference 1.1 Personal pronoun: I, You, We, They, He, She, It and me, you, us, the, him, her, it. Example Mangoes are sweet when they are ripe. They refers to _____________. 1.2 Demonstrative: this, that, these, those. Example The doctor prescribed the wrong drug. This nearly cost the patient’s life. This refers to _________________ . 1.3 Indefinite pronoun: Some, all, both, each, many, more, most, others. Example Twenty candidates applied for the job. One was successful while The others failed. One refers to _________________ . The others refers to ______________ . 1.4 Relative Pronoun: Who, whom, whose, which, and that Example This is why Mark is active about many things which he knows to be unimportant. Which refers to 1.5 Adverb of time Example It was 10 years ago when I met Jennie and she was a littlie girl them. Then refers to _____________ . 1.6 Adverb of place Example Two years ago he visited his friend who worked in Sukhothai. There he met his twin brother. There refers to ______________ 1.7 Super – ordinate Example Mr. Pike finally came in sight. The man looked very tired. The man refers to _________________ . . ______________ .